Alumina is a fairly chemically inert and white chemical compound of aluminium and
oxygen with the chemical formula Al2O3. It is the most commonly occurring of several
aluminium oxides, and specifically identified as aluminium(III) oxide. It may also
be called aloxide, aloxite, or alundum depending on particular forms or applications.
Used as filler in plastic and cosmetics, as a catalyst. Corundum used as an abrasive
is considered and industrial mineral.
Aluminium is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number
13. It is a silvery white, soft, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third most abundant
element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust.
It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth's solid surface. Aluminium metal is so
chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing
environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.The chief
ore of aluminium is bauxite.
Aluminosilicate minerals are minerals composed of aluminium, silicon, and oxygen,
plus countercations. They are a major component of kaolin and other clay minerals.Andalusite,
kyanite, and sillimanite are naturally occurring aluminosilicate minerals that have
the composition Al2SiO5
Amber is fossilized tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its color
and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present
as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects. Amber is used as
an ingredient in perfumes, as a healing agent in folk medicine, and as jewelry.
Anhydrite is a relatively common sedimentary mineral that forms massive rock layers.
Anhydrite does not form directly, but is the result of the dewatering of the rock
forming mineral Gypsum (CaSO4-2H2O). This loss of water produces a reduction in volume
of the rock layer and can cause the formation of caverns as the rock shrinks.
Anthracite is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. It has
the highest carbon content, the fewest impurities, and the highest calorific content
of all types of coal (compared to bituminous coal and lignite).
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from Latin: stibium) and atomic number
51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral
stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were
used for cosmetics; metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified
Apatite is a group of calcium phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite,
fluorapatite and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions,
respectively, in the crystal. The formula of the admixture of the four most common
endmembers is written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH,F,Cl)2, and the crystal unit cell formulae
of the individual minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2.
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite
and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively,
in the crystal. The formula of the admixture of the four most common endmembers is
written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH,F,Cl)2, and the crystal unit cell formulae of the individual
minerals are written as Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, Ca10(PO4)6(F)2 and Ca10(PO4)6(Cl)2.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs
in many minerals, usually in conjunction with sulfur and metals, and also as a pure
elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid. It can exist in various allotropes, although
only the gray.form has important use in industry.
Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is the fifth
element in Group 2, a soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal. Because of its high
chemical reactivity barium is never found in nature as a free element. Its hydroxide
was known in pre-modern history as baryta; this substance does not occur as a mineral,
but can be prepared by heating barium carbonate.
Commercial basalt and traprock includes igneous rocks that are too fine grained to
be termed “black granite.” This category includes extrusive igneous rocks, such as
andesite, basalt, or dacite, and intrusive igneous rocks, such as amphibolites, diabase,
diorites, fine-grained gabbros, peridotites and pyroxenites.
In chemistry, the term base metal is used informally to refer to a metal that oxidizes
or corrodes relatively easily and reacts variably with diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl)
to form hydrogen. Examples include iron, nickel, lead and zinc. Copper is also considered
a base metal because it oxidizes relatively easily, although it does not react with
A residual clay deposit, aluminous laterite, derived from the alteration of basalt
lava, containing at least 50% Al(OH)3; used as a source of aluminium and as feedstock
for ferrous aluminium sulphate water purification material. Used as proppant for hydraulic
fracturing; used as abrasive.
Beryl is often unknown to the general public, even the gemstone-buying public. However,
it is one of the most important gem minerals. Beryl is colorless in pure form; it
is the many different impurities that give beryl its varied coloration.
Beryllium is the chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. Because
any beryllium synthesized in stars is short-lived, it is a relatively rare element
in the universe. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination
with other elements. Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include beryl (aquamarine,
emerald) and chrysoberyl.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent
other metal, chemically resembles arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur
naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores.
Bituminous coal or black coal is a moderately hard coal containing higher carbon and
fewer impurities than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite. Its coloration
can be black or sometimes dark brown; often there are well-defined bands of bright
and dull material within the seams. These distinctive sequences, which are classified
according to either "dull, bright-banded" or "bright, dull-banded", is how bituminous
coals are stratigraphically identified.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. Because boron is produced
entirely by cosmic ray spallation and not by stellar nucleosynthesis, it is a low-abundance
element in both the solar system and the Earth's crust. Boron is concentrated on Earth
by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate
minerals. These are mined industrially as evaporites, such as borax and kernite.
Lignite, often referred to as sub-bituminous or brown coal, is a soft brown combustible
sedimentary rock that is formed from naturally compressed peat. It is considered the
lowest rank of coal due to its relatively low heat content. It is mined in Bulgaria,
Kosovo, Greece, Germany, Poland, Serbia, Russia, Turkey, the United States, Canada,
India, Australia and many other parts of Europe and it is used almost exclusively
as a fuel for steam-electric power generation. 25.7% of Germany's electricity comes
from lignite power plants, while in Greece lignite provides about 50% of its power
A variety of chalcedony colored by iron oxide, which is commonly used as a semi-precious
gemstone. The color can vary greatly, ranging from pale orange to an intense almost-black
coloration. When Carnelian grades into brown it is known as Sard. Some very dark brown
Carnelian can be classified as Jasper. The distinction between these is very fine
and relies more on visual appearance than scientific analysis. As a result, it is
very possible that one man's Carnelian may be another man's Sard, Agate or Jasper.
Caesium or cesium[note 1] is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
It is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28 °C (82 °F), which
makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature.
- Caesium or cesium[note 1] is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number
55. It is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28 °C (82 °F),
which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature